Ammonium bicarbonate is an inorganic salt with the chemical formula NH4HCO3. It is also called ammonium hydrogencarbonate. It can easily be degraded to carbon dioxide and ammonia. It must be stored in a cool and dry place as it is thermally unstable.
General properties of ammonium bicarbonate are:
- It is a colourless solid
- It is crystalline in form
- It is soluble in cold water and is decomposed by hot water
- Insoluble in alcohol and acetone
- It is volatile in solution and releases ammonia and carbon dioxide
Production of ammonium bicarbonate:
Ammonium bicarbonate is manufactured by passing carbon dioxide gas counter currently through a descending stream of aqua ammonia in a packed tower or absorption column. It can also be produced by heating ammonium hydroxide with an excess of carbon dioxide, followed by evaporation.
The reaction is given by:
CO2 + NH3 + H2O → NH4HCO3
The different applications of ammonium bicarbonate are:
Ammonium bicarbonate is used as a raising and leavening agent in the food industry, for baking products such as cookies and biscuits. It is considered as a good leavening agent as it decomposes at a very low temperature, and hence no unpleasant taste of ammonia.
It is used as a nitrogen fertilizer because it is easily affordable.
Ammonium bicarbonate is utilized in the production of fire extinguishing compounds. It also acts as a buffering solution in analytical methods of purifications such as high pressure liquid chromatography, lyophilisation and mass spectrometry.
Ammonium bicarbonate is added as a component in cough syrups. It is used to manufacture porous plastics, ceramics, dyes and pigments. In the field of research, it is use as a foaming agent in the development of macro porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
|CAS No.||: 1066-33-7|
|Mol Wt.||: 79.056 g/mol|
|Toxicity||: Oral rat LD50: 5620 mg/kg|
|Synonyms||: Bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, powdered baking ammonia|
|PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES|
|Physical State||: Colourless solid|
|Melting point||: 41.9 °C|
|Boiling point||: Decomposes over 315 K|
|Solubility in water||: 11.9 g/100 mL at 0 °C|
|Density and phase||: 1.586 g/cm3, solid|
|Content||: 99.2% ~ 101.0%|
|Chloride (as Cl)||: 70ppm Max|
|Sulphur (as S)||: 2ppm Max|
|Sulphate (as SO42-)||: 70ppm Max|
|Non-volatile Matters||: 80ppm Max|
|Iron||: 20ppm Max|
|Arsenic||: 2ppm Max|
|Heavy Metals (as Pb)||: 5ppm Max|